These are referred to as minor because they are not life threatening.
The causes can be;-

  • Hormonal changes
  • Accommodation changes
  • Metabolic changes and
  • Postural changes
Nausea and vomiting (morning sickness)

This is due to hormonal changes progesterone and Oestrogen and high level of HCG, it occurs from 4-16 weeks. This decreases when the placenta fully takes over.
-Light snacks
-Carbohydratesnack like cassava, a hard crackers
-Avoid sweet things
-Coming out of the bed slowly.

Heart burn

Burning sensation in the media sternal region progesterone relaxes the cardiac sphincter and allows reflux of gastric contents into esophagus most troublesome between 30-40 weeks, because of pressure on stomach from growing uterus.
-Avoid bending
-Small frequent meals
-Sleeping with more pillows
-Persistent heart burn antiacids like magnesium triscilicate.

Excessive salivation (ptyalism)

From 8 weeks, hormones are thought to be the cause. It may accompany heart burn. Counseling is helpful.


Progesterone cause relaxation of the plain muscles and decreased peristalsis of the gut.
-Increased intake of water, fresh fruit, vegetables and whole meal foods in diet.
-Glass of warm water in the morning, before tea and breakfast may activate the gut.
– Exercise can be helpful especially walking.
Aperients are only considered as a last resort.


This is when a mother craves for certain foods or unnatural substances.
The cause is unknown but hormones and changes in metabolism are attributed to it.


This can be due to hormones Relaxin. Discuss with woman and let her be aware, it will disappear after delivery.

Leg cramps

Cause of leg cramp in pregnancy is unknown may be due to ischemia or a result from changes in PH or electrolyte status.
-Mother to dorsiflex the foot and raise foot of bed.
-Gentle leg movement before sleeping at night.
-Others-use of vit B complements and calcium.


The weight of the pregnant uterus and altered posture increase susceptibility which is exacerbated by progesterone and Relaxin causing relaxation and softening of ligaments of the pelvis.
-Avoid high heeled shoes.
-Sit on a comfortable chair or support the back on a wall while seated.
-Have extra rest during the day.


In early pregnancy, it may occur due to vasodilation under the influence of progesterone before there has been a compensatory increase in the blood volume.
-Avoid long standing periods.
-Quickly sit or lie down if feels slightly faint,
-Mother should avoid lying on her back except during abdominal examination.

Vericose veins

-Progesterone relaxes smooth muscles of veins and results in sluggish circulation. Varicose veins may occur in legs, anus and vulva.
During pregnancy
-Support tights increase comfort eg stockings.
-Avoid constipation.
-A sanitary pad may give support.
-Use a crepe bandage on affected leg from below upwards before getting out of bed in the
morning and remove it at night.
-The affected leg should be elevated when resting.
-Advise mother to see the doctor if varicose veins appear on the vulva.
-In case of severity, book mother for hospital delivery since they can easily rapture and cause severe bleeding.
During labour
-Inform doctor.
-Take off blood for Hb, grouping and x-matching.
-Be careful when shaving the vulva and when performing an episiotomy.
-Sedatives are given to prevent premature pushing.


These are veins of the vulva or rectum and they usually occur due to constipation. They can be painful, edematous and ulcerative.
-Advise mother on diet to avoid constipation.
-Use cold compress gently on the area.
-Doctor may order analgesic like anusol.

Heart palpitations

This occurs due to increased functioning of the heart to meet the demands of the growing fetus and mother.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

The mother complains of numbness, pins and needles in her fingers and hands.
It’s caused by fluid retention which causes oedema and pressure on the median nerve by compressing it.
-Wearing a splint at night and rising hands on a pillow at night.
-If it persists, refer to doctor who will give diuretics.


This is failure to get sleep and may be caused by worries, anxiety and it shouldn’t be taken lightly.
Emotional instability
Hating, irritation, loving i.e. willing to stay closer to partner.


This is increased, non- irritant, vaginal discharge.
-Ensure hygiene if distressing.
-Wear cotton under pants for easy absorption.

Frequency of micturition

This occurs in early pregnancy when the growing fetus is still in the pelvic cavity and late pregnancy when the PP descends and competes for space needed by bladder.

Itching of the skin

This can be due to Striae gravidurum, poor hygiene, heat rash and minor skin rashes.
-Wear cotton clothes which are non-irritating.
-Advise on personal hygiene.
-Apply calamine lotion in case of skin rash.

Disorders which require immediate action

  • Vaginal bleeding.
  • Reduced fetal movements.
  • Frontal or recurrent headache.
  • Sudden swelling or oedema.
  • Early rapture of membranes.
  • Premature onset of contractions
  • Maternal exhaustion at whatever extent.
  • Fits.
  • Excessive nausea and vomiting.
  • Epigastric pain.

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